Q1. What are the functions of a column in a building?
Answer – A column is used to support the weight of the roof and/or the upper floors. Nowadays, many columns are used for decorative purposes. A column along with load bearing beams can support a lot of weight.
Q2. What are the uses of Groynes?
Answer – They prevent, or slow down erosion, and stop the longshore drift. This, however, can have bad knock-on effects somewhere near.
Q3. What are the strongest shapes in the building?
Answer – The pillars
Q4. How many feet are in 4 square yards?
Answer – There are 9 square feet in a square yard, therefore, there are 36 square feet in 4 square yards.
Q5. What is the average density of soil?
Answer – For purposes of civil engineering, an average soil will have a density of about 100 to 110 pounds per cubic foot. (This can vary a little depending upon how well compacted the soil is)
Q6. What is the ratio of Grades M5, M7.5, M10, M15, M20, M25, M30, M35, M40?
M30, M35, M40 – Design Mix Followed
Q7. How do you compute the volume of airflow?
Answer – Orifice meter is used for measuring flow rate air.
Q8. Who designed the city of Washington DC?
Answer – Pierre L’Enfant
Q9. How do you maintain water pressure?
Answer – If you have water pressure and wish to maintain it, do not cause flow in the line, which will reduce pressure due to friction. To keep the pressure up, reduce friction by increasing the line size or eliminating some other restriction.
Q10. The mixture of different ingredients of cement is burnt at
Answer – 1400°C
Q11. The foundations are placed below ground level, to increase
Answer – stability of structure
Q12. The portion of a brick cut across the width is called
Answer – Bat
Q13. The concrete slump recommended for beams and slabs; is
Answer – 30 to 125 mm
Q14. In jack arch floor, the rise is kept
Answer – 1/12th of the span
Q15. What is absolute pressure?
Answer – Absolute pressure is simply the addition of the observed gauge pressure plus the value of the local atmospheric pressure.
Q16. What is the meaning of soil reinforcement?
Answer – Soil reinforcement is the act of improving soil strength to enable it support or carry more load.
Q17. Minimum size of the particles of silt soil, is
Answer – 0.002 mm
Q18. Under reamed piles are generally
Answer – bored piles
Q19. Describe briefly the various methods of concrete curing.
Answer – Curing is the process of maintaining the moisture and temperature conditions for freshly deployed concrete. This is done for the small duration of time to allow the hardening of concrete. The methods that are involved in saving the shrinkage of the concrete includes:
(a) Spraying of water: On walls, and columns can be cured by sprinkling water.
(b) The wet covering of surface: can be cured by using the surface with wet gunny bags or straw
(c) Ponding: The horizontal surfaces including the slab and floors can be cured by stagnating the water.
(d) Steam curing: Prefabricated concrete units, steam can be cured by passing it through the units that are under closed chambers. It allows faster curing process and results in faster recovery.
(e) Application of curing compounds: Compounds having calcium chloride can be applied on curing surface. This keeps the surface wet for a very long time.
Q20. Sometimes the side of concrete bridges is observed to turn black in color. What is the reason for this phenomenon?
Answer – In some cases, it may be due to the accumulation of dust and dirt. However, for the majority of such phenomenon, it is due to fungus or algae growth on concrete bridges. After rainfall, the bridge surface absorbs water and retains it for a certain period of time. Hence, this provides a good habitat for fungus or algae to grow. Moreover, atmospheric pollution and proximity of plants provide nutrients for their growth. Improvement in drainage details and application of painting and coating to bridges help to solve this problem.
Q21. What reinforcements are used in the process of prestressing?
Answer – The major types of reinforcements used in prestressing are:
(a) Spalling Reinforcement: The spalling stresses leads to stress behind the loaded area of the anchor blocks. This results in the breaking off of the surface concrete. The most likely causes of such types of stresses are Poisson`s effects strain interoperability or by the stress trajectory shapes.
(b) Equilibrium reinforcements: This type of reinforcements are required where several anchorages exist where the prestressing loads are applied in a sequential manner.
(c) Bursting Reinforcements: These kinds of stresses occur in cases where the stress trajectories are concave towards the line of action of load. In order to reduce such stresses, reinforcements in the form of bursting are required.
Q22. What are the functions of grout inside tendon ducts?
Grout in prestressing works serves the following purposes:
(i) Protect the tendon against corrosion.
(ii) Improve the ultimate capacity of the tendon.
(iii) Provide a bond between the structural member and the tendon.
(iv) In a case of failure, the anchorage is not subject to all strain energy.
Q23. What is the different type of slump test indications?
Answer – Slump tests are performed to empirically measure the workability of fresh concrete. It is used to measure the consistency of the concrete. In general, there are three different types of slumps that occur in slump tests. They are as follows:
(i) True Slump
(ii) Shear Slump
(iii) Collapse Slump
(i) True Slump: This type of slump is characterized by the general drop in the concrete mass evenly without visible signs of deterioration or disintegration. Shear Slump: It indicates that the concrete mix is deficient in cohesion. This type of slump leads to segregation and bleeding. Henceforth, in the long run, affecting the durability of the concrete.
(ii) Shear Slump: It indicates that the concrete mix is deficient in cohesion. This type of slump leads to segregation and bleeding. Henceforth, in the long run, affecting the durability of the concrete. Collapse Slump: This type of slump is indicates that the mix of concrete is simply too wet. The mix is considered to be harsh and lean.
(iii) Collapse Slump: This type of slump is indicates that the mix of concrete is simply too wet. The mix is considered to be harsh and lean.
Q24. Is it worthwhile to carry out tests on particle density of soil particles for geotechnical design?
Answer – Particle density of soils is defined by the ratio of soil particle mass and soil particle volume. Depending on soil types, the range of variation of soil particle density varies not significantly, i.e. by 4%. Therefore, it may not be worthwhile to order laboratory tests and incur additional expenditure just to determine the particles density by recognizing that the variation of particles density is not significant.
Q25. What are the main reasons for conducting pull-out tests for soil nails?
Answer – There are mainly four reasons for this test: (i) To check and verify the bond strength between soil and grout adopted during the design of soil nails. This is the main objective of conducting soil nail pull-out test. (ii) To determine the bond strength between soil and grout for future design purpose. However, if this target is to be achieved, the test nails should be loaded to determine the ultimate soil/grout bond with an upper limit of 80% of the ultimate tensile strength of steel bars. (iii) To check if there is any slippage or creep occurrence. (iv) To check the elastic and plastic deformations of test nails. This is observed during the repeated loading and unloading cycles of soil nails.