- The idea of the silt excluder was first presented by Elsdon.
- Designed by Nicolson at Khanki head works in 1934.
- The basic idea behind the design is that the lower layers of the flowing water carry a higher concentration of silt and therefore if the upper layers of the water only can be skimmed into the canal, all the rolling bed silt and the silt in the lower layers is excluded.
- This is achieved by a silt excluder. This is a diaphragm slab supported on a number of tunnels. Tunnels are placed parallel to the head regulator and discharge d/s through the under sluice. The water above the silt excluder slab containing less silt is then diverted into the canal. The following points should be kept in mind while designing a silt excluder.
- The tunnel discharge the under sluice is recommended to be 20 percent of the canal discharge.
- The approach channel need not be lined.
- The divide wall should be 1.2 to 1.4 times the head regulator length.
- The roof slab should be designed to carry a full water load in case the tunnels are empty.
- The discharge through the tunnels will depend upon the head measured above the centre line of the tunnel. Tunnel can be treated as box culverts.
Principles of Silt Control
- Before we describe the mechanism and functioning of these silt control devices, we shall explain the basic principle on which the silt is removed from the water.
- The fundamental principal the behind silt control is: that most of the silt tries to settle down in water, thus, confining itself mostly in the bottom layers of water.
- We also known that the silt is kept in suspension by the force of the vertical eddies generated by the friction of the flowing water against the bed.
- In other words, if this bed friction is more, the upward force of eddies shall be more, and hence, lesser chances of silt settlement will exist.
- The chances of less disturbance and that of providing a smooth approach channel can be better attained in a canal rather than in the river bed.
- Silt extractor is therefore, better than a silt excluder.
- However, the silt extractor shall be costlier because surplus water has to be taken into the canal from the head, and an escape, channel which will feed the highly silted water back into the river, shall have to be constructed.
Description and Design of a silt Excluder
- A silt excluder consists of a number of rectangular tunnels running parallel to the caxisohhe head regulator and terminating near the under-sluiced weir. The tunnel nearest to the crest of the head regulator has to be at least of the same length as the head regulator. Other tunnels may be shorter in length. The roof slab of the excluder tunnels is kept at the same level as that of the regulator crest.
- The bottom layer of water which is highly charged with silt and sediment will pass down the tunnels and escape over the floor of the under-sluice way(s), since the gates of the under sluice way (s) shall be kept open upto the top of the tunnels. The clearer water over the top of the roof of the excluder tunnels, will thus enter the canal through the head regulator.
- Usually, two or three bays of the ‘under-sluices of the weir or the barrage are covered by the excluder.
Factors effecting the efficiency of silt excluders
- An increase in escape supply increases the efficiency to a certain point but further increases in escape supply may not increase the efficiency substantially.
- The grade of sediment affects the efficiency. For coarser silt the efficiency is more. For smaller grades it is less.