Sources and Rates of Domestic Wastewater Flows
- Small Residential District- Wastewater flows determined based on population density and average per capita contribution of wastewater.
- Large Residential District- Wastewater flows developed based on Land use areas and anticipated population density.
- If data is unavailable, estimate 70% of the domestic water-withdrawal rate is returned to the sanitary sewer system.
- The quantity of sewage produce depends upon the quantity of water use.
- Average daily flow- (70-80)% average water consumption i.e.
- Average Daily Flow (ADF) of Sewage- 75%
- Average Daily Demand (ADD) of water consumption-75 ADD
- The flows in sanitary sewers vary seasonably monthly, daily, hourly. For areas of moderate sizes be expressed as;
- Maximum Daily Flow- 5 x ADF
- 5 varies from place to place.
- Maximum hourly flow= (2-4) ADF
- This is actually the peak flow.
- Sewers are designed on peak flow basis, however the minimum flow passing through the sewer is also important in the design of a particular sewer because at low flow the velocity will be reduced considerably which may cause silting.
- So the sewers must be checked for minimum velocities at their minimum hourly flows.
- Generally for a moderate area the following minimum flows may be assumed.
- Minimum Daily Flow= 2/3 ADF
- Minimum Hourly Flow= 1/3 ADF
Industrial Wastewater Estimation
- Industries without internal reuse programs: approximately 85 to 95% of water used will be returned to the sanitary sewer system.
- Large industries with internal-water-reuse programs: need data on how much water is reused internally.
How is the waste water going to be removed and treated?
Building Connecting Pipes
- Connects the building plumbing to the public sanitary wastewater collection system.
- Convey wastewater from the buildings to lateral or branch sewer, or any other sewer except another building sewer.
- Normally begins outside the building foundation.
Lateral Branch Sewers
- Forms the first element of a wastewater collection system.
- Usually in streets or special utility easements.
- Used to collect wastewater from one or more building sewers and convey it to a main sewer.
- Main sewers are used to convey wastewater from one or more lateral sewers to trunk sewers or to intercepting sewers.
- Trunk sewers are large that are used to convey wastewater from main sewers to treatment or other disposal facilities, or to large intercepting sewers.
- Intercepting sewers are large sewers that are used to intercept a number of main or trunk sewers and convey the wastewater to treatment or other disposal facilities.