Multi Storeyed Building
- The tallness of a building is relative and can not be defined in absolute terms either in relation to height or the number of stories. But, from a structural engineer’s point of view the tall building or multi-storeyed building can be defined as one that, by virtue of its height, is affected by lateral forces due to wind or earthquake or both to an extent that they play an important role in the structural design.
- The development of the high-rise building has followed the growth of the city closely. The process of urbanization, that started with the age of industrialization, is still in progress in developing countries like India.
- Chimney or stacks are very important industrial structures for emission of poisonous gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to a higher elevation such that the gases do not contaminate surrounding atmosphere. These structures are tall, slender and generally with circular cross-sections. Different construction materials, such as concrete, steel or masonry, are used to built chimneys. Steel chimneys are ideally suited for process work where a short heat-up period and low thermal capacity are required. Also, steel chimneys are economical for height up to 45m.
- A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly impervious material built across a river to create a reservoir on its upstream side for impounding water for various purposes.
- A dam and a reservoir are complements of each other.
- Dams are generally constructed in the mountains reach of the river where the valley is narrow and the foundation is good.
- Generally, a hydropower station is also constructed at or near the dam site to develop hydropower.
- A structure built in order to allow people or vehicles to cross a river or a valley etc.
- Bridges are needed for joining a gap between the banks of a river or they span the distance between two sides of a valley.
- They are made from materials including stone and steel.
- They can carry people, cars, lorries, railways and even rivers.
- Bridges are structures which carry people and vehicles across natural or man-made obstacles.
- Food processing
- Chemical processing
- Paper industry
- Metals industry
- Power plants
- Engineering industry
- Retaining walls are structure used to retain soil, rock or other materials in a vertical condition. Hence they provide a lateral support to vertical slopes of soil that would otherwise collapse into a more natural shape.
- A retaining wall is a structure that holds or retains soil behind it.
- There are many types of materials that can be used to create retaining walls like concrete blocks, poured concrete, treated timbers, rocks or boulders.
- To retain soil at a slope which is greater than it would naturally assume, usually at a vertical or near vertical position.
- A harbor may be natural or partly dug out, or even made with floating materials. It doesn’t have gates, but may have a narrow entrance.
- Provide safe anchoring or mooring for ships.
- A dock is dug out and usually has gates so that the water level is kept up even through the tide has gone out.
- A dock is for mooring ships for cargo or passenger exchange, or sometimes repair.