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Water Distribution System


  • Water distribution systems are designed to adequately satisfy the water requirement. The performance of a distribution system can be judged on the basis of pressure available on the system for a specific rate of flow. The distribution system consists of a network of pipes with appurtenances.
  • A well-planned distribution of pipe network that can distribute water supply to the premeses in an organized way. Overall, the effectiveness of water supply system means a decision may be taken by examining a method of distribution the water supply to the premises in an orderly manner and properly.
  • The purpose of distribution system is to deliver water to consumer with appropriate quality, quantity & pressure.
  • Distribution system is used to describe collectively the facilities used to supply water from its source to the point of usage.
  • Pipes can be placed either parallel or in series.

Main Source of Water Supply

  • The main source of water supply are from river, ponds underground and etc. however, there are also water taken from former mines and rain. The responsible party will treat the water from the main sources before supply it to the consumers. This is to ensure that the quality of water is free from contamination while ensuring the health and safety of consumers.
  • The water is a basic necessity of life such as for drinking. However, the consumption of water is highly need for daily use such as bathing, cleaning, washing, cooking and watering plants, etc. this includes the use for religious ritual, business and related activates. Water that has been used will be channeled into the sewage system for treatment before being disvharge into to river.

Requirements of Good Distribution System

  • Water quality should not get deteriorated in the distribution pipes.
  • It should be capable of supplying water at all the intended places with sufficient pressure.
  • It should be capable of supplying the requisite amount of water during fire fighting.
  • The layout should be such that no consumer would be without water supply, during the repair of any section of the system.
  • All the distribution pipes should be preferably laid one meter away or above the sever line.
  • It should be fairly water tight as to keep losses due to leakage to the minimum.

Distribution Method of Water Supply

After the cleaning process, water supply system will go through the main pipeline system that consists of several major pipelines. The main pipeline system connects the storage pool or the pumping to the communication pipe that will supply water to the building. The piping system varies from one area to another depending on the size and characteristics of the area. Among the factors that affect the main piping system are:

  • Physicaln condition of soil and contour of distribution areas.
  • The distance between distribution area and the main pipe.
  • The ability to balance the needs of consumers with water production.
  • The number and types of users.
  • Water loss in terms of friction.

Classification of Distribution Network System

  1. Dead End System
  2. Radial System
  3. Grid Iron System
  4. Ring System

Methods of Water Distribution System

  • For efficient distribution system adequate water pressure required at various points.
  • Depending upon the level of source, topography of the area and other local conditions, the water may be forced into distribution system by following ways-
  1. Gravity System
  2. Pumping System
  3. Combined Gravity and Pumping System

Gravity System

  • Suitable when source of supply is at sufficient height.
  • Most reliable and economical distribution system.
  • The water head available at the consumer is just minimum required.
  • The remaining head is consumed in the frictional and other losses.

Pumping System

  • Treated water is directly into the dustribution main out storing.
  • Also called pumping without storgae system.
  • High lifts pumps are required.
  • If power supply fails, complete stoppage of water supply.
  • The method is not general used.

Combined Gravity and Pumping System

  • Most common system.
  • Treated water is pumped and stored in an elevated distribution reservoir.
  • Then supplies to consumer by action of gravity.
  • The excess water during low demand periods get stored in reservoir and get supplied during high demand period.
  • Economical, efficient and reliable system.

Types of Pipes

  • PVC Pipes
  • CPVC Pipes
  • PEX Pipes
  • Copper Pipe

Types of Joints

  • End Cap Joint
  • Tee Joint
  • Strainer Joint
  • Reducer Joint
  • Cast Iron Bent Joint
  • Collar Joint

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