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What are Domes??

Introduction

  • A geodesic dome is a thin shelled arrangements made out of triangles connected together to form a true sphere.
  • The triangles are architecturally firm and distribute the stress throughout the dome, allowing the structure to bear heavy loads for their size.
  • A dome is typically an element of architecture that resembles the upper half of sphere. Domes are curved structure- they have no angles and no corners- and they enclose an enormous amount of space with the minimum of materials as they don’t require interior supports.
  • Space frame is the three dimensional framework that makes the dome stable.
  • The triangles are put as hexagons and pentagons to eventually form the dome.

Types of Domes

Geodesic Dome

Corbel Dome

Onion Dome

Drum Dome

Oval Dome

Sail Dome

Saucer Dome

Scalloped Dome

Monolithic Dome

Planning the Construction

  • Designing the dome is the first step to start with. The size and amount of triangles and their calculations to form the dome is needed. For example, the basic dome has equilateral 20 triangles, which then further divided into smaller triangles to form the sphere. More triangles results in bigger and more complex domes.
  • Struts these are the framework for the dome which are made up of rods. Normal geodesic domes have same length of struts where as complex ones have struts of different sizes.
  • Material selection should be made as different materials create different kinds of dome.
  • Finalizing the structure several things should be kept in mind while putting all the pieces together, such as, the struts and their dimensions, their edges flattened so that they fall on the same plane when attached, and to make sure the flattened edges bend slightly.

Structure

  • Dome are the most efficient structures known to man, they use less material, are lighter and stronger than any other type of building bar none.
  • They are much stronger than any conventional buildings.
  • Domes can be built very quickly and economically.
  • The nature of the spherical design provides strength because all the points of the structure share the stress evenly as opposed to the right angles of typical box structures.
  • Geodesic domes are the only man-made structure that gets proportionally stronger as it increases in size.

Dome assembly method

  • The assembly should be planned according to the class and complexity of the dome constructed.
  • It also depend on what arrangement will the triangles be, for example pentagon, hexagon.
  • It is better to start the assembly from top pieces and gradually coming downwards.

Weather Resistant

  • Domes are naturally hurricane resistant. Tract style buildings generate huge amounts of turbulence when high winds pass over them, causing massive low-pressure which pulls the roof off.
  • High performance green materials designed to withstand considerable wind loads from severe storms like tornados, hurricanes and typhoons.
  • Due to their high structural integrity, they perform extremely well in such natural disasters as earthquakes, floods and severe wind storms.
  • Ideal for disaster prone climates.

Eco-Friendly

  • Extremely ‘green’ in terms of cost, building materials, and future maintenance.
  • The sphere has the greatest volume given a certain surface area, it stands to reason that it also is the most economic to construct in terms of size and available budget.
  • Domes are easier to retrofit for energy engineering such as: radiant heat, solar energy, water collection systems, compost toilets, and many other alternative utilities.

Advantages

  • Weather Resistant: Aerodynamics reduce destruction.
  • Aesthetically Pleasing: Invariably the most eye catching.
  • Highly Acoustic: Sound flows naturally in a sphere.
  • Higher R-Value: Thermal resistance is a high gain.
  • Geodesic dome is a stable and easy construction which is very strong, they are ideal for almost any type of spaces.
  • Geodesic domes have an aerodynamic shape which protects them against strong wind or storms. eat gain and enables uniform air flow.
  • This type of domes can be very large in size with less surface area, meaning less material are required, hence lowering costs.

Disadvantages

  • The unusable space inside of s geodesic dome.
  • Windows and doors
  • The buildings permit can also be problem as drainage and fire escapes can be an issue and they need to meet code requirements.
  • Financing and resale

Use of Geodesic Dome

  • Green houses
  • Residential homes
  • Warehouses
  • Water reservoirs
  • Entertainment spots

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