What is Nanotechnology
- Nanotechnology is the use of very small particles of materials either by themselves or by their manipulation to create the new large scale materials.
- Nanometer is a billionth of a meter.
- Decisive materials properties can be deliberately improved by introducing characteristics structures on the Nano scale.
- The construction business will inevitably be a beneficiary of this nanotechnology.
- At the basic science level, much analysis of concrete is being done at the nano-level in order to understand its structure using the various techniques developed for study at that scale.
- Concrete is after all, macro-material strongly influenced by its nano-properties and understanding it at this new level is yielding new avenue’s for improvement of strength, durability & monitoring.
- In concrete Nano particles mainly used are-
- Nano Silica
- Titanium Dioxide
- Carbon Nanotube
- Nano Silica addition to cement base materials can control the degradation of the fundamental C-S-H reaction of concrete cause by calcium leaching in water as well as block water penetration and therefore leads to improvements in durability.
- When related to OPC as a result the compressive strength of the material is 3-6 times higher.
- It is another Nano particle that improves concrete durability, strength & importantly for sustainability and replacing cement, however, the curing process of concrete is slowed by addition of fly ash, at early stage strength is also low in comparison to normal.
- With the addition of SIO2 Nano particles added to concrete has shown that they also increase strength that replaces density in earlier stages.
- Another type of Nano particle added to concrete to improve its properties is TIO2.
- TIO2 is a white pigment and can be used as an excellent reflective coating.
- TIO2 breaks down organic pollutants, volatile organic compounds, bacterial membrane’s through powerful catalytic reactions.
- Additionally it is hydro philic and therefore gives self cleaning properties to surface to which it is a plane.
Nano in glass
- TIO2 is used in Nano partial form to coat glassing since it has sterilizing and anti-fouling properties.
- Fire protective glass is another application of nanotechnology in which clear in tumescent layer sandwiched between glass panel’s formed of fumed silica Nano particles which interns into a rigid a opaque fire shield when heated.
Nanotechnology & fire protection
- Nano cement has the potential to create a new paradigm in this area can be used as tough, durable high temperature coating this is a achieved by mixing CNT’S which cement material to fabricate fiber composites which results outstanding performances.
- Polypropoline also are being consider as the metal of increasing fire resistance and this is cheaper option than conventional.