Universal Testing Machine and Components of UTM

A machine used to test specimens for tensile strength, compressive strength, shear strength and to perform bend test along other important laboratory tests. The primary use of the testing machine is to create the stress strain diagram.


Once the diagram is generated, a pencil and straight edge or computer algorithm can be used to calculate yield strength, Young’s Modulus, tensile strength or total elongation.

Components of UTM

It consists of two main parts, called:

  1. Loading Unit
  2. Control Unit

Loading unit

In this unit actual loading of the specimen takes place – consists of three cross heads namely upper head, middle head and lower head. Using appropriate cross heads tensile, compressive, shear, bending load with the help of different attachment can be applied. Loading unit of a UTM consists of:

  1. Upper cross head – To clamp testing specimen from top
  2. Lower cross head – To clamp testing specimen from below
  3. Table – to place the specimen, used for compression test

Control Unit

The load is applied and recorded by this unit. The load is applied with control valve and released by release valve. The load is applied with the help of hydraulic pressure.


An instrument used to measure elongation in the material

Tests UTM can perform

  1. Tensile Tests
  2. Adhesion Tests
  3. Cycle tests with momentary stops
  4. Pull-Out Tests
  5. Creep Tests
  6. Hysteresis Tests

Displays Test Traces and Values

Test Traces: An ongoing test can be displayed as either:

  1. Load/Displacement
  2. Load/Position
  3. Load/Time
  4. Position/Time
  5. Displacement/Time

Digital Indicating Windows: The following are displayed:

  1. Maximum Load (peak hold)
  2. Current Load (during a test)
  3. Cross head Position
  4. Displacement (from the start of a test)

Applications of Universal Testing Machine

Universal Testing Machine can be used and applied to perform tests on the following samples:

  1. Rope
  2. Steel Rope
  3. Winches
  4. Steel Wire
  5. Electrical Wire
  6. Webbing
  7. Spring
  8. Slings
  9. Cable
  10. Nylon Rope
  11. Links
  12. Chain
  13. Steel Chain


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