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Sewer and Details……….

Sewer Pipes Profiles

  • Circular
  • Egg-Shaped (inverted)
  • Egg-Shaped
  • Mouth-Shaped
  • Square
  • Trapezoidal


Sewer Pipes Materials

  • Concrete, Reinforced Concrete, Prestressed Concrete
  • Ceramics
  • Asbestos Cement
  • Cast Iron
  • Steel
  • Plastics- PVC, PE, PP, Reinforced with fiber-glass
  • Resins- Epoxy resin, reinforced with fiber-glass


Where does the wastewater come from?

  1. Sanitary Wastewater
  • Wastewater from residential, commercial, institutional and industrial sources.
  1. Storm Water Runoff
  • Wastewater resulting from rainfall running off streets, roofs, and other impervious surfaces.


Infiltration to Sanitary Sewer Systems

Groundwater/percolating water in the subsurface entering a sewer system through:

  • Defective pipes
  • Leaking Pipe Joints
  • Poor Connections
  • Cracked Manhole Walls, etc.


Inflow to Sanitary Sewer Systems

Water entering a sewer system from surface sources such as:

  • Leaking manhole covers
  • Directly connected roof gutters
  • Cellar of foundation drains
  • Cross connections from storm drains and combined sewers
  • Yard and area drains
  • Cooling-water discharge
  • Drains from springs and swampy areas
  • Street wash water


Sanitary Sewer Overflow

  • Heavy rains overload the system though inflow and infiltration into cracks, ill-fitting joints, and leaky manholes.
  • To prevent hydraulic overload of treatment plants, the excessive sewage bypasses the plant and is discharged without treatment.


Effect of SSOs

  • Nutrients and toxicants may cause algal blooms and harm wildlife. Algal blooms remove O2 from water, smothering aquatic life.
  • Decrease in water quality reduces number and range of plants and fish.


Public Health

  • Direct contact with water containing sewage can cause skin and ear infections and gastroenteritis, and cuts become infected.
  • Illnesses result from eating fish/shellfish that swim in sewage contaminated waters.
  • Inhalation and skin absorption can also cause disease.



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