Sewer Pipes Profiles
- Egg-Shaped (inverted)
Sewer Pipes Materials
- Concrete, Reinforced Concrete, Prestressed Concrete
- Asbestos Cement
- Cast Iron
- Plastics- PVC, PE, PP, Reinforced with fiber-glass
- Resins- Epoxy resin, reinforced with fiber-glass
Where does the wastewater come from?
- Sanitary Wastewater
- Wastewater from residential, commercial, institutional and industrial sources.
- Storm Water Runoff
- Wastewater resulting from rainfall running off streets, roofs, and other impervious surfaces.
Infiltration to Sanitary Sewer Systems
Groundwater/percolating water in the subsurface entering a sewer system through:
- Defective pipes
- Leaking Pipe Joints
- Poor Connections
- Cracked Manhole Walls, etc.
Inflow to Sanitary Sewer Systems
Water entering a sewer system from surface sources such as:
- Leaking manhole covers
- Directly connected roof gutters
- Cellar of foundation drains
- Cross connections from storm drains and combined sewers
- Yard and area drains
- Cooling-water discharge
- Drains from springs and swampy areas
- Street wash water
Sanitary Sewer Overflow
- Heavy rains overload the system though inflow and infiltration into cracks, ill-fitting joints, and leaky manholes.
- To prevent hydraulic overload of treatment plants, the excessive sewage bypasses the plant and is discharged without treatment.
Effect of SSOs
- Nutrients and toxicants may cause algal blooms and harm wildlife. Algal blooms remove O2 from water, smothering aquatic life.
- Decrease in water quality reduces number and range of plants and fish.
- Direct contact with water containing sewage can cause skin and ear infections and gastroenteritis, and cuts become infected.
- Illnesses result from eating fish/shellfish that swim in sewage contaminated waters.
- Inhalation and skin absorption can also cause disease.