- Multi Storied Building
- Industrial Structures
- Retaining Wall
- Hydraulic Structure
- Marine Structure
Multi Storied Building
- The tallness of a building is relative and can not be defined in absolute terms either in relation to height or the number of stories. But, from a structural engineer’s point of view the tall building or multi-storied building can be defined as one that, by virtue of its height, is affected by lateral forces due to wind or earthquake or both to an extent that they play an important role in the structural design.
- The development of the high-rise building has followed the growth of the city closely. The process of urbanization, that started with the age of industrialization, is still in progress in developing countries like India.
- Chimneys or stacks are very important industrial structures for emission of poisonous gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to a higher elevation such that the gases do not contaminate surrounding atmosphere. These structures are tall, slender and generally with circular cross-sections. Different construction materials, such as concrete, steel or masonry, are used to build chimneys. Steel chimneys are ideally suited for process work where a short heat-up period and low thermal capacity are required. Also, steel chimneys are economical for height up to 45m.
- A dam is a hydraulic structure of fairly impervious material built across a river to create a reservoir on its upstream side for impounding water for various purposes.
- A dam and a reservoir are complements of each other.
- Dams are generally constructed in the mountainous reach of the river where the valley is narrow and the foundation is good.
- Generally, a hydropower station s also constructed at or near the dam site to develop hydropower.
- A structure built in order to allow people or vehicles to cross a river or a valley etc. Bridges are structures which carry people and vehicles across natural or man-made obstacles.
- An industrial building is any structure that is used to store raw materials or furnished goods from a manufacturing process or house the process itself like:
- Food processing
- Chemical processing
- Paper and pulp industry
- Metals industry
- Retaining walls are structure used to retain soil, rock or other materials in a vertical condition. Hence they provide a lateral support to vertical slopes of soil that would otherwise collapse into a more natural shape.
- Canal head regulator