Types of Soil
- Alluvial Soils
- Black Soils
- Red Soils
- Laterite Soils
- Mountain Soils
- Desert Soils
- It is the most important type of soil found in India covering about 40% of the total land area. It is very fertile and contributes the largest share of agriculture wealth. This soil supports nearly half of the Indian population.
- The alluvial soil is found mostly in the Northern Plains, starting from Punjab in the west to West Bengal and Assam in the east. It is also found in the deltas of the Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri rivers in the Peninsular India. The northern parts and the coastal areas of Gujarat also have some deposits of alluvial soil.
- Many rivers originate from the Himalayan Mountains and bring a large amount of sediment with them. It is deposited in the river valleys and the flood plains. Thus, the parent material of the alluvial soils is always of transported origin.
Types of Crops Grown in Alluvial Soil
- Sugar Cane
- The black soil is locally regur, a word derived from Telugu word ‘reguda’. It is also called the Black Cotton Soil, as cotton is the most important crop grown in this soil.
- The black soil is mostly found in the Deccan Trap, covering large areas of Maharashtra, Gujarat and Western Madhya Pradesh. It is also found in some parts of Godavari and Krishna river valleys, covering parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.
- This soil is made up of extremely fine clayey material.
- The black soil is well-known for its capacity to hold moisture.
Types of Crops Grown in Black Soil
- Sugar Cane
- The red soil occupies about 10% area of India, mostly in the south-eastern part of the Peninsular India. This area encircles the entire black soil region. The red soil is found in Tamil Nadu, parts of Karnataka, southeast Maharashtra, eastern parts of Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Jharkhand.
- Most of the red soil has been formed due to weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks.
- The red colour is due to the high percentage of iron contents.
Types of Crops Grown in Red Soil
- The word ‘laterite’ has been derived from a Latin word meaning ‘brick’. The laterite soil is widely spread in India and is mainly found on the summits of the Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Rajmahal Hills, Vindhyas, Satpuras and Malwa plateau. It is well- developed in Southern Maharashtra, and parts of Orissa, West Bengal, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Bihar, Assam and Meghalaya.
- The laterite soil is formed under consitions of high temp and heavy rainfall with alternate wet and dry periods.
- Such climate conditions promote leaching of soil. Leaching is a process in which heavy rains wash away the fertile part of the soil.
Types of Crops Grown in Laterite Soil
- Areca Nut
- Also provides valuable building materials
- The mountain soil is generally found on the hill slopes covered with forests. In the Himalayan region such soil is mainly found in the valley basins, the depressions and the lesser steep alopes. The north-facing slopes generally soil cover. Apart from the Himalayan region, this soil is also found in the Western and Eastern Ghats and in some parts of the Peninsular India.
- The mountain soil is formed mainly due to the deposition of organic matter provided by the forests.
Types of Crops Grown in Mountain Soil
- Tropical fruits in Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala
- The desert soil is found mostly in the arid and semi-arid region, receiving less than 50cm of annual rainfall. Such region are mostly found is Rajasthan and the adjoining areas of Haryana and Punjab. The Rann of Kachchh in Gujarat is an extension of this region.
- The sand in the desert areas is partly of local origin and partly being blown in from the Indus Valley.
- It includes even the wind-blown loess.
- The desert soil has sand and clay.
Types of Crops Grown in Desert Soil