Indian Metro Railway

Introduction of Indian Metro Railway

  • India’s 1st and Asia’s 5th metro rail was introduced in Kolkata.
  • Over a length of 16.45km and the work on this project was sanctioned on 01/06/1972.
  • The construction work started in 1973-74. After crossing so many hurdles Calcutta Metro started its journey on October24, 1984.


Why is it needed?

  • Unprecedented growth of personal vehicles.
  • Growing traffic congestion.
  • Air pollution and traffic accidents has become a major concern.
  • To avoid congestion at peak hours.
  • Time saving. Reduced fuel consumption.


City Metro Rail

  • Lack of adequate connectivity are becoming increasingly eminent.
  • Delhi has taken the exemplary lead of developing the Metro Rail.
  • India is well on its way to create a world-class MRT system as an integral part of community infrastructure development in the country.
  • Shift from private modes of conveyance to public transport.


India is looking to create a world class MRT system

  • Growing cities, growing population and rowing traffic has invariably called for a shift from private modes of conveyance to public transport.
  • MRTS in the world’s developing nations exist successfully.
  • India has lagged behind in this field but the reason could be as follows:-
  1. Lack of funds planning as is known that such projects require huge capital investments.
  2. A long gestation period.
  3. Complex technology.
  4. The lack of integration between various systems of mass transportation.
  5. The absence of comprehensive traffic and transportation planning.


Cost Factors

  • Metro projects are meant to cater to cities with more than four million population.
  • Larger the underground and elevated proposal, larger shall be the cost involved.
  • Funding process is done through the PPP model (Public-Private-Partnership) as in Hyderabad and Mumbai or by DMRC model by the state or the central government as in Bengaluru, Chennai and Kolkata.
  • Correct process is the PPP model.


Benefits of Metro Rail

  • Requires 1/5th energy per passenger km compared to road-based transport system.
  • Causes less noise, no air pollution and eco friendly transport system.
  • Occupies o road space if underground and only about 2.60m width of the road if elevated.
  • Reduces journey time.
  • Cost effective mass transport system.
  • Reducing traffic transport problems.



  • A cheap mode of transport, the MRTS helps in low energy consumption.
  • It is eco-friendly (runs on electricity, thus minimizing air and sound pollution).
  • Averts the number of accidents.
  • Is efficient in terms of space occupancy and provides comfort with ultra-modern coaches and modern systems like automatic ticketing, advanced signaling systems, automatic train protection system and integrated security systems.
  • Also such stations lead to nearby economic development.
  • With proper designing, the peak hour capacity could be rated at 3-4 lakhs passengers per hour.”



  • The only disadvantage of metros is the slight congestion on roads at the time of construction which has to be taken care of.
  • The cost factor is another disadvantage, the solution for which is to integrate metros with others systems considering the volume, structure, availability of space and resources for traffic and transportation.



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