What is Column and it’s Types??

What is Column?

  • We knew that in a framed structure A vertical structural member which can transmit the load from the slab, beam along with its self-weight to the foundation is called column.

Why we provide column?

  • Columns carry axial loads and therefore are designed for compression.
  • Other loads from snow, wind or other horizontal forces can cause bending in the columns.
  • We shall build up a small size structure by RR masonry at a certain height but the multi-story building cannot be constructed by RR masonry because the structure can able to transmit the heavy load to the foundation.
  • Basically, a column designed to distribute the compressive axial load & additional forces like snow, wind to the foundation eventually & it could be sustained the structure even in the earthquake or any other force majeure.

Column- Based on Shape & Reinforcement

  1. Square/Rectangular Column
  2. Composite/Encased Column
  3. Circular Column
  4. Y Type Column
  5. T Type Column
  6. L Type Column

Square/Rectangular Column

  • Most of the building structure was constructed by square or rectangular column. Significantly both are having same components and it is differ based on its architect view.
  • These type of column was economically good and easy to do shuttering, placing reinforcement & Concrete.

Composite/Encased Column

  • A vertical structural element, with a combination of steel section & concrete it is called as encased or composite column.
  • The composite column mostly provided for truss structure to avoid the steel corroded by any type of chemical.

Circular Column

  • The bending resistant is higher than square/rectangular column.
  • It occupies the lesser area.
  • Square/rectangular column reinforcement minimum 4 nos of steel will be places in the corner but in a circular column provide more than 4 nos.
  • Mostly in building circular column provided for the aesthetic purpose.
  • Economically it is little high to compare to square or rectangular column.

Y-type Column

  • These type of column mostly using for bridges construction.
  • The design of bridges to sustain the dead load of the structure & live load of the vehicle motion, the load was eventually distributed to the column.

T-type Column

  • These type of column having same features like square/Rectangular type column.
  • Mostly it was provided along with retaining wall or boundary wall based on design requirement.

L-type Column

  • The L type column has used in boundary wall construction and heavy type L column was used in the turning of metro rail or bridges construction.

Column- Based on Load

  1. Axial Load Column
  2. Uniaxial Load Column
  3. Bi-Axial Load Column
  4. Eccentric Load Column

Axial Load Column

  • The entire load passes through the centre axis of the column which coincides with the X-axis, it is called Axial Load.
  • The load shall be either compression or tensile load.

Uniaxial Load Column

  • The eccentric load act on either X axis or Y axis it is called Uni axial load column.

Bi-Axial Load Column

  • The eccentric load act on either X axis or Y axis it is called Uni axial load column.

Eccentric Load Column

  • The load shall pass parallel to the centre axis of the member but act on its cross-section that’s called Eccentric load.

Column- Based on Slenderness Ratio

  • The length of the column divided by its radius of gyration, it is called slenderness ratio of the column.
  • The slenderness ratio is used to find out the buckling stress of the column.
  1. Long Column
  2. Short Column

Long Column

  • Slenderness ratio of the column is greater than 12 it is called long column.
  • The column may fail on both compression & buckling load.

Short Column

  • Slenderness ratio of the column is less than 12 it is called short column.
  • The sort column may fail by compression stress.

About The Author